USCIS trains its officers to look for several indicators or "red flags" that may indicate fraud in the various types of immigration and visa cases.

General Behavioral Fraud Indicators

  • extreme nervousness
  • over-interaction
  • lack of knowledge about basic questions
  • late for interview
  • answers prompted by attorney or other
  • lack of interest or interaction
  • lack of eye contact
  • evasive or overly general answers
  • answers interrupted by attorney or other
  • attorney attempted to distract or mislead

Other General Fraud Indicators

  • documents issued immediately before interview
  • documents issued immediately after interview
  • over-submissions
  • proactive, explicit, or staged photographs
  • suspect tax flings or financial transactions
  • multiple applications or petitions by a single applicant or petitioner
  • common preparer (known or suspected by USCIS to have previously engaged in fraud)
  • preparer, notary, etc., are all the same person
  • tip letter or phone call
  • suspect documents
  • photographic evidence suggests imposter
  • biometric discrepancies
  • denied for abandonment or withdrawal after request for evidence issued
  • suspicious filing history of beneficiary or applicant

I-130 Family-Based Petition Fraud Indicators

  • short time between entry and marriage
  • unusual marriage history
  • children born during marriage to other parent
  • unusual number of children and large discrepancy in age
  • unusual dates on submitted documents
  • divorce and new marriage close in time
  • unusual associations between family members
  • unusual cultural differences
  • low employment/financial status of petitioner
  • prepare, notary, and minister are all the same person
  • same employer of petitioner and beneficiary
  • previous marriages to foreign nationals
  • unusual or large age discrepancy between spouses (when found in conjunction with other indicators)

I-140 and I-129 Employment Based Fraud Indicators

  • unknown or unusual addresses or email addresses
  • skill, age, salar, or education does not match job requirements
  • no record of correspondence with parent company
  • zoning inconsistent wiht business
  • unusual data in quarterly reports
  • labor certification right before sunset of 245I (April 30, 2001)
  • multiple filings by petitioner is inconsistent with company size
  • location on ETA-750A or ETA-9035 differs from place of employment
  • no record of providing goods or services
  • boilerplate documents that are in more than one petition

I-360 Religious Worker Fraud Indicators

  • skill, age, education, and/or religious training does not match job requirements
  • concregation size does not match number of employees
  • zoning inconsistent with organization
  • preceding two years of tax document list different position than petitioned for
  • service conducted at non-religious properties

I-539 Student Visa Fraud Indicators

  • unusual financial support or bank statements
  • age is not commensurate with education sought
  • affidavit of support identifies benefactor as friend rather than relative
  • biolierplate justification to change to F1
  • benefactor's income ppears insufficient to cover expenses
  • B1/B2 visitor applying for extension with insufficient evidence or motive
  • educationa request doesn't coorelate with beneficiary's employment background

I-589 and I-730 Asylum Fraud Indicators

  • similar claims or documents on multiple applications
  • unusual travel outside US
  • conflicting information from different application or petitons
  • unusual or excessive length of stay in US
  • return to country they claim to fear
  • common addresses on different applications
  • children that are not on I-589 but later claimed on I-730

I-90, I-131, I-765 Fraud Indicators

  • multiple filings
  • name does not match what is in DHS system
  • photographic evidence suggests imposter
  • claims of eligibility based on suspicious asylum claims


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